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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, Aristo'teles

Current location in this text. Enter a Perseus citation to go to another section or work. Full search options are on the right side and top of the page. Biography Aristotle was born at Stageira, a sea-port town of some little importance in the district of Chalcidice, in the first year of the 99th Olympiad.

Suidas, s. His mother, Phaestis or Phaestiaswas descended from a Chalcidian family Dionys. His father, who was a man of scientific culture, soon introduced his son at the court of the king of Macedonia in Pella, where at an early hang drum suisse anti aging he became acquainted with the son of Amyntas II. The studies and occupation of his father account for the early inclination manifested by Aristotle for the investigation of nature, an inclination which is perceived throughout his whole life.

This friend of his father provided conscientiously for the education of the young orphan, and secured for himself a lasting remembrance in the heart of his grateful hang drum suisse anti aging. Afterwards, when his foster-parents died, leaving a son, Nicanor, Aristotle adopted him, and gave him his only daughter, Pythias, in marriage. After the completion of his seventeenth year, his ardent yearning after knowledge led him to Athens, the mother-city of Hellenic culture.

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Various calumnious reports respecting Aristotle's youthful days, which the hatred and envy of the schools invented, and gossiping anecdote-mongers spread abroad Athen.

Appuleius, Apol. Oudendorp to the effect that he squandered his hereditary property in a course of dissipation, and was compelled to seek a subsistence first as a soldier, then as a drug-seller φαρμακοπώληςhave been already amply refuted by the ancients themselves. Aristocles, apud Euseb.

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When Aristotle arrived at Athens, Plato had just set out upon his Sicilian journey, from which he did not return for three years. This intervening time was employed by Aristotle in preparing himself to be a worthy disciple of the great teacher. His hereditary fortune, which, according to all appearance, was considerable, not merely relieved him from anxiety about the means of subsistence, but enabled him also to support the expense which the purchase of books at that time rendered necessary.

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He studied the works of the earlier as well as of the contemporary philosophers with indefatigable zeal, and at the same time sought for information and instruction in intercourse with such followers of Socrates and Plato as were living at Athens, among whom we may mention Heracleides Ponticus. So aspiring a mind could not long remain concealed from the observation of Plato, who soon distinguished him above all his other disciples.

He named him, on account of his restless industry and his untiring investigations after truth and knowledge, the intellect of his school νοῦς τῆς διατριβῆςPhilopon. Mundi adv.

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Proclum, 6. And while he recommended the latter "to sacrifice to the Graces," he appears rather to have warned Aristotle against the " too much.

During the whole of this period the good understanding which subsisted between teacher and scholar continued. For the stories of the disrespect and ingratitude of the latter towards the former are nothing but calumnies invented by his enemies, of whom, according to the expression of Themistius Orat.

Nevertheless, we can easily believe, that between two men who were engaged in the same pursuits, and were at the same time in some respects of opposite characters, collisions might now and then occur, and that the youthful Aristotle, possessed as he was of a vigorous hang drum suisse anti aging aspiring mind, and having possibly a presentiment that he was called to be the founder of a new epoch in thought and knowledge, may have appeared to many to have sometimes entered the lists against his grey-headed teacher with too much impetuosity.

But with all that, the position in which they stood to each other was, and continued to be, worthy of both. This is not only proved by the character of each, which we know from other sources, but is also confirmed by the truly amiable manner and affectionate reverence with which Aristotle conducts his controversies with his teacher. In particular, we may notice a passage in the Nicomachean Ethics 1.

According to a notice by Olympiodorus in his commentary on Plato's GorgiasAristotle even wrote a biographical λόγος ἐγκωμιαστικός on his teacher. See Cousin, Journ. Savans, Dec. During the last ten years of his first residence at Athens, Aristotle himself had already assembled around him a circle of scholars, among whom we may notice his friend Hermias, the dynast of the cities of Atarneus and Assos in Mysia.

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Strabo xiii. The subjects of his lectures were not so much of a philosophical 2 as of a rhetorical and perhaps also of a political kind. At least it is proved that Aristotle entered the lists of controversy against Isocrates, at that time the most distinguished teacher of rhetoric. Indeed, he appears to have opposed most decidedly all the earlier and contemporary theories of rhetoric.

His opposition to Isocrates, however, led to most important consequences, as it accounts for the bitter hatred which was afterwards manifested towards Aristotle and his school by all the followers of Isocrates. It was the conflict of profound philosophical investigation with the superficiality of stylistic and rhetorical accomplishment; of systematic observation with shallow hang drum suisse anti aging and prosaic insipidity; of which Isocrates might be looked upon as the principal representative, since he not only despised poetry, but held physics and mathematics to be illiberal studies, cared not to know anything about philosophy, and looked upon the accomplished man of the world and the clever rhetorician as the true philosophers.

On this occasion Aristotle published his first rhetorical writings. That during this time he continued to maintain his connexion with the Macedonian court, is intimated by his going on an embassy shielo anti aging arcbőrradír vélemények Philip of Macedonia on some business of the Athenians.

Moreover, we have still the letter in which his royal friend legjobb anti aging illóolajok arcra to him the birth of his son Alexander. After the death of Plato, which occurred during the above-mentioned embassy of Aristotle B. Perhaps he was offended by Plato's having appointed Speusippus as his successor in the Academy. At the same time, it is more probable that, after the notions of the ancient philosophers, he esteemed travels in foreign parts as a necessary completion of his education.

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Since the death of Plato, there had been no longer any ties to detain him at Athens. Besides, the political horizon there had assumed a very different aspect.

The undertakings of Philip against Olynthus and most of the Greek cities of Chalcidice filled the Athenians with hatred and anxiety. The native city of Aristotle met with the fate of many others, and was destroyed by Philip at the very time that Aristotle received an invitation from his former pupil, Hermias, who from being the confidential friend of a Bithynian dynast, Eubulus comp.

Pollux, 9.

On his journey thither he was accompanied by his friend Xenocrates, the disciple of Plato. Hermias, like his predecessor Eubulus, had taken part in the attempts made at that time by the Greeks in Asia to free themselves from the Persian dominion. Perhaps, therefore, the journey of Aristotle had even a political object, as it appears not unlikely that Hermias wished to avail himself not merely of férfi anti aging hormonterápia counsel, but of his good offices with Philip, in order leírása anti aging arc further his plans.

A few hang drum suisse anti aging, however, after the arrival of Anti aging svájci árvaház, Hermias, through the treachery of Mentor, a Grecian general in the Persian service, fell into the hands of the Persians, and, like his predecessor, lost his life.

Aristotle himself escaped to Mytilene, whither his wife, Pythias, the adoptive daughter of the assassinated prince, accompanied him. A poem on his unfortunate friend, which is still preserved, testifies the warm affection which he had felt for him. He afterwards caused a statue to be erected to his memory at Delphi. He transferred to his adoptive daughter, Pythias, the almost enthusiastic attachment which he had entertained for his friend; and long after her death he directed in his will that her ashes should be placed beside his own.

Here Aristotle was treated with the most marked respect. His native city, Stageira, was rebuilt at his request, 4 and Philip caused a gymnasium called Nymphaeum to be built there in a pleasant grove expressly for Aristotle and his pupils. In the time of Plutarch, the shady walks περίπατοι and stone seats of Aristotle were still shewn to the traveller.

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Here, in quiet retirement from the intrigues of the court at Pella, the future conqueror of the world ripened into manhood. Plutarch informs us that several other noble youths enjoyed the instruction of Aristotle with him. Among this number we may mention Cassander, the son of Antipater Plut.

Nearchus, Ptolemy, and Harpalus also, the three most intimate friends of Alexander's youth, were probably his fellow pupils. Alexander attached himself hang drum suisse anti aging such ardent affection to the philosopher, that the youth, whom no one yet had been able to manage, soon valued his instructor above his own father. Aristotle spent seven years in Macedonia ; but Alexander enjoyed his instruction without interruption for only four.

But with such a pupil even this short period was sufficient for a teacher like Aristotle to fulfil the highest purposes of education, to aid the development of his pupil's faculties in every direction, to awaken susceptibility and lively inclination for every art and science, and to create in hang drum suisse anti aging that sense of the noble and great, which distinguishes Alexander from all those conquerors who have only swept like a hurricane through the world.

According to the usual mode of Grecian education, a knowledge of the poets, eloquence, and philosophy, were the principal subiects into which Aristotle initiated his royal pupil. Thus we are even informed that he prepared a new recension of the Iliad for him ἡ ἐκ τοῦ νάρθηκοςWolf, Proleg. Alexander's love of the science hang drum suisse anti aging medicine and every branch of physics, as well as the lively interest which he took in literature and philosophy generally Plut.

Nor can the views communicated by Aristotle to his pupil on politics have failed to exercise the most important influence on his subsequent plans; although the aim of Alexanderto unite all the nations under his sway into one kingdom, without due regard to their individual peculiarities Plut.

Huttenwas not as Joh. Müller maintains founded on the advice of Aristotle, but, on the contrary, was opposed to the views of the philosopher, as Plutarch l. On the other hand, this connexion had likewise important consequences as regards Aristotle himself. Living in what was then the centre and source of political activity, his survey of the relations of life and of states, as well as his knowledge of men, was extended. The position in which he stood to Alexander occasioned and favoured several studies and literary works.

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In his extended researches into natural science, and particularly in his zoological investigations, he received not only from Philip, but in still larger measure from Alexanderthe most liberal support, a support which stands unrivalled in the history of civilisation.

Aelian, Ael. In the year B. From that time Aristotle's instruction of the young prince was chiefly restricted to advice and suggestion, which may very possibly have been carried on by means of epistolary correspondence. Here he found his friend Xenocrates president of the Academy. He himself had the Lyceum, a gymnasium in the neighbourhood of the temple of Apollo Lykeios, assigned to him by the state.

He soon assembled round him a large number of distinguished scholars out of all the Hellenic cities of Europe and Asia, to whom, in the shady walks περίπατοι which surrounded the Lyceum, while walking up and down, he delivered lectures on philosophy. From one or other of these circumstances the name Peripatetic is derived, which was afterwards given to his school.

It appears, however, most correct to derive the name with Jonsius, Dissert. Elswich from the place where Aristotle taught, which was called at Athens par excellence, ὁ περίπατοςas is proved also by the wills of Theophrastus and Lycon.

His lectures, which, according to an old account preserved by Gellius Those which he delivered in the afternoon δειλινὸς περίπατος and intended for a more promiscuous circle which accordingly he called esotericextended to rhetoric, sophistics.


Such a separation of his more intimate disciples and more profound lectures, from the main body of his other hearers and the popular discourses intended for then, is also found among other Greek philosophers. As regards the external form of delivery, he appears to have taught not so much in the way of conversation, as in regular lectures. Some notices have been preserved to hang drum suisse anti aging of certain external regulations of his school, e.

Neither of the two schools of philosophy which flourished at the same time in Athens approached, in extent and celebrity, that of Aristotle, from which proceeded a large number of distinguished philosophers, historians, statesmen, and orators. During the thirteen years which Aristotle spent at Athens in active exertions amongst such a circle of disciples, he was at the same time occupied with the composition of the greater part of his works.

In these labours, as has already been observed, he was assisted by the truly kingly liberality of his former pupil, who not only presented him with talents, an immense sum even for our times, but also, through his vicegerents in the conquered provinces, caused large collections of natural curiosities to be made hang drum suisse anti aging him, to which posterity is indebted for one of his most excellent works, the " History of Animals. Meanwhile various causes contributed to throw a cloud over the latter years of the philosopher's life.

In the first place, he felt deeply the death of his wife Pythias, who left behind her a daughter of the same name : he lived subsequently with a friend of his wife's, the slave Herpyllis, who bore him a son, Nicomachus, and of whose faithfulness and attachment he makes a grateful and substantial acknowledgement in his will.

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But a source of still greater grief was an interruption of the friendly relation in which he had hitherto stood to his royal pupil. The occasion of this originated in the opposition raised by the philosopher Callisthenes against the changes in the conduct and policy of Alexander. Aristotle, who had in vain advised Callisthenes not to lose sight of prudence in his behaviour towards the king, disapproved of his conduct altogether, and foresaw its unhappy issue.

Buhle; comp. Albert Heydemann's German translation and explanation of the categories of Aristotle, p.

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The story, that Aristotle, irritated by the above-mentioned occurrence, took part in poisoning the king, is altogether unfounded. Alexanderaccording to all historical testimony, died a natural death, and no writer mentions the name of Aristotle in connexion with the rumour of the poisoning except Pliny. Nay, even the passage of Pliny has been wrongly understood by the biographers of Aristotle by Stahr as well, i.

To bring a political accusation against him was not easy, for Aristotle was so spotless in this respect, that not even his name is mentioned by Demosthenes, or any other contemporary orator, as implicated in those relations.

He was accordingly accused of impiety ἀσεβείας by the hierophant Eurymedon, whose accusation was supported by an Athenian of some note, named Demophilus. Such accusations, as the rabulist Euthyphron in Plato remarks, seldom missed their object with the multitude. Plato, Euthyph. Hang drum suisse anti aging charge was grounded on his having addressed a hymn to his friend Hermias as to a god, and paid him divine honours in other respects. Poesi, p. Certain dogmas of the philosopher were also used for the same object.

Aristotle, however, knew his danger sufficiently well to withdraw from Athens before his trial. He escaped in the beginning of B. In his will also mention is made of some property which he had in Chalcis. Certain accounts Strabo x. A fragment hang drum suisse anti aging a letter written by the philosopher mnt25 suisse anti aging his friend Antipater has been preserved to us, in which he states his reasons best anti aging serum dermatologist recommended the above-mentioned change of residence, and at the same time, with reference to the unjust execution of Socrates, adds, that he wished to deprive the Athenians of the opportunity of sinning a second time against philosophy.

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From Chalcis he may have sent forth a defence against the accusation of his enemies. At least antiquity possessed a defence of that kind under his name, the authenticity of which, however, was already doubted by Athenaeus.

However, on his refusing to answer the summons of the Areiopagus, he was deprived of all the rights and honours which had been previously bestowed upon him Aelian, Ael.