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Clinical trials

Twenty-seven of This dogs was proteinuric as well. Laboratory evidence of kidney disease was significantly more common in male BMDs with evidence of kidney disease mean 5.

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Prevalence of antibodies to B. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of anti-B. There was no significant association between the sex of BMDs and and the presence of antibodies against B. Antibodies to B. Antibodies to Anaplasma spp. Antibodies to both pathogens, B. No dog in the study had antibodies to Ehrlichia canis Table 4.

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Table 4 Prevalence of antibodies and signalement in Bernese Mountain dogs BMDs with and without laboratory evidence of kidney disease Full size table Discussion In the present study, Interestingly, renal azotemia was the most common abnormality and was more common than proteinuria in this population of BMDs, and none of the BMDs had proteinuria without azotemia. Persistent proteinuria quantified by measuring UPC in a urine sample with an inactive urine sediment is the hallmark of glomerular disease and is the only laboratory abnormality present in early stages of this disease [ 1619 ].

Not being fasted and higher muscle mass are possible reasons for increased creatinine as well, however, this would also apply for the control dogs. Determination of symmetric dimethylarginin SDMA would have helped to exclude this influence but was not available when the study was performed [ 20 ]. Therefore, it is possible that some of the dogs would not have been classified as dogs with renal disease if repeated measurements of creatinine and USG or measurement of glomerular filtration rate GFR were performed to confirm the presence of renal disease.

However, there is a consensus that with increasing magnitude of proteinuria assessed by UPC, there is also increased likelihood for primary glomerular disease [ 1921 ]. While renal proteinuria with UPC values between 0.

These ten dogs in the present study had UPC values between 2.

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To the owners and upon physical examination these dogs appeared healthy, but regarding the relevant laboratory parameters, these ten dogs resemble dogs of previous reports on familial MPGN in BMDs that had more pronounced proteinuria UPC 4—30 and azotemia as well [ 78 ].

Seventeen of the 35 dogs with renal azotemia had a UPC between 0. It is possible that these anti aging ab 28 were in an early stage of MPGN and had additional tubulointerstitial nephritis with less pronounced laboratory abnormalities or a different disease entity. In the present study, This is different from the ratio of males to females that has been reported for BMDs with familiar MPGN [ 78 ] but similar to the gender distribution of a study performed in Switzerland with BMDs [ 22 ].

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While only This gender distribution could indicate that BMDs might be predisposed for other forms of renal disease that affect male individuals with greater frequency. The average age of BMDs with evidence of kidney disease in the present study was 5. The mean age of dogs with evidence of glomerular disease was 5.

This suggests that there is not only a breed predisposition for glomerular but also for tubulointerstitial kidney disease in BMDs.

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In the present study, there was no anti aging ab 28 between the presence of laboratory abnormalities indicating kidney disease and the presence of antibodies against B. In a previous study including 53 B. There were, however, no alterations in laboratory parameters blood and urine that would indicate development of renal disease [ 24 ].

The higher prevalence of antibodies to B. In the present study, the effects of coat colour, hair length, size and living conditions on antibody titers were controlled for by using control dogs that were heavier than 30 kg, had long dark hair and lived in environments similar to those of the BMDs.

Therefore, this difference cannot be attributed to environmental factors. A satisfying explanation for the high prevalence of antibodies to B. The most common biochemical findings that have been reported in dogs with Anaplasma spp. In the present study, there was no difference in serum total protein serum albumin between antibody-positive and antibody-negative dogs.

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The significantly higher albumin in BMDs compared to control dogs did not exceed the reference range and was not considered to be of clinical relevance.

This study has several limitations.

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Firstly, dogs included in this study were tested only once and thus comparison or confirmation of initial and follow-up results was not possible. To diagnose persistent renal proteinuria, ideally two or more urine samples collected several weeks apart would have been desirable. This is also true for USG and serum creatinine which are influenced by extrarenal factors, such as hydration status and diet, and repeated measurement would be preferable to document persistence of abnormal results [ 28 ].

In addition, determination of SDMA would have been particularly helpful to exclude the influence of the muscle mass [ 29 ].

Clinical trials

Secondly, in the present study, only routine renal functional parameters creatinine, urea, USG and UPC were used for assessment of renal function. Urinary NGAL and uRBP have been shown to detect possible acute tubular injury not identified with anti aging ab 28 renal parameters creatinine, urea and USG in dogs with parvovirus enteritis [ 30 ], and babesiosis [ 31 ]. However, UPC had the capacity to detect acute kidney injury as well.

Therefore, it is unlikely that the use of more sensitive markers of kidney injury would have led to markedly different results. Conclusions In conclusion, BMDs had more often laboratory evidence of kidney disease than control dogs. Male dogs were affected nearly ten times as often as female dogs OR 9. Furthermore, BMDs had a higher prevalence of antibodies to B. There was no correlation between laboratory parameters indicating renal disease and the presence of antibodies to B.

Methods Data acquisition The clinical data and laboratory test results were derived from data collected for another study with prospectively enrolled dogs [ 15 ].

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Apart from the published results, additional data was collected and additional laboratory tests were performed for the study that have not yet been analyzed.

Data analysis for the current study was approved by the ethical committee of the veterinary faculty of the LMU Anti aging ab 28 — Dogs A total of purebred BMDs verified by registry certificates and 57 control dogs originating from the same areas in Southern Germany were included in the study. Anti aging ab 28 control dogs, the selection criteria for inclusion in the study were a long, dark hair coat and a body weight of more than 30 kg, which is comparable with that of BMDs.

All control dogs lived in the same households as the BMDs or in the same neighborhoods. The control group consisted of 29 female dogs 10 spayed and 28 male dogs 13 neutered ranging in age from 1 to 12 years median: 4.

Bernese Mountain Dogs were located with the help of breeder clubs and consisted of females 27 spayed and 71 males 18 neutered ranging in age from 6 months to 13 years median: 3. All dogs underwent a physical examination and blood sampling, and all of the dogs were examined by the same veterinarian first author.

Owners were asked to answer a detailed questionnaire regarding clinical signs, environment, tick exposure, tick prevention, and vaccination history of their dogs.

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Laboratory variables Haematocrit, white blood cell count WBCa partial serum biochemical profile, and urinalysis were performed for all dogs. For the serum biochemical profile, blood samples collected from the jugular or cephalic vein were placed in plastic serum tubes, and then were allowed to clot for 30 min.

Samples were centrifuged at rpm RPM for 10 min and the serum was harvested.

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Serum biochemical analysis was performed using an automated analyser Hitatchi ; Roche Deutschland Holding GmbH, Grenzach-Wyhlen, Germany and included the following parameters: the concentration of urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and phosphorus. The Cell Dyn Fa. Abbott, Wiesbaden was used for determination of the haematocrit and the WBC.

Urine samples were collected by cystocentesis in all dogs. A complete urinalysis including determination of the USG, a dipstick analysis, and microscopic examination of the urine sediment was performed. For examination of the urine sediment, urine was centrifuged at RBM for 5 minutes.

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The urine sediment was assessed for the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, and bacteria in 20 fields using a 40 x objective lens. UPC was not determined in nine dogs because they had more than five leukocytes per field or bacteria in the urine sediment. Antibody testing Whole blood samples were collected from a jugular or cephalic vein in all dogs and tested for anti-B.


Briefly, each test kit consisted of a coated matrix with a result window containing five spots; colour development in the spots indicated the presence of anti-B. The fifth spot served as a positive control. The wash and substrate solutions were placed in two separate chambers, and after activation of the test kit, the solutions flowed across the coated matrix.

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The test was performed immediately after blood collection using whole blood. Statistical analysis Data were recorded and analysed using the commercial computer program SPSS Statistics version The Mann Whitney U test was also used to analyse differences in laboratory findings between antibody-positive and antibody-negative dogs.