What was the Hungarian in and what is it in ? The problem of national characterology yesterday and today The book entitled Mi a Magyar?
What is the Hungarian, referring to character? Gyula Szekfű, the well-known Hungarian historian who was the editor in-chief, wanted to refute the assertions of Lajos Prohászka's famous work on national characterology entitled A vándor és a bujdosó The Wanderer and the Hider But it is more to it than meets the eye.
These books took part in a great debate which was going on anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció the whole inter-war era on the problem of national character. But national characterology could not become scientific, in approach in the strict sense. Metaphysics, history of philosophy, critiques of modernity, history of literature were mingled with shallow psychology in this curious mixture.
So, national characterology in some sense was the symptom of the distorted way of thinking fokhagyma egy anti aging élelmiszer of the disturbed national consciousness in the inter-war period. Especially German, Spanish and emigrant Russian Authors were interested in this topic. We must not forget that important intellectual and ideological developments had preceded the emergence of national characterology.
From this respect we can mention the crisis of liberalism, the emergence and strengthening of neo-conservatism and appearance of cultural morphology. In Hungary the roots of national characterology grew from the climate of the turn of th centuries. But, now we are interested in the developments of the inter-war period, and especially in the intellectual framework which was the context for these developments.
The authors represented different professions: Dezső Szabó was a writer, Gyula Szekfű a historian, Lajos Prohászka was a philosopher. In Az elsodort falu The Swept Away Willage the author did not produce positive national characterology but he described the characters of the Hungarian national middle class and set the stage for the later national character debate. Dezső Szabó and Gyula Szekfű occupied different ideological positions: the first was a radical anti-liberal author, the second a conservative anti-liberal historian.
Szekfű's starting-point was the enumeration of the so called 'Hungarian national vices' which had been borrowed from Istvan Széchenyi, the 19 th century reformer and thinker, that held back Hungarian Progress.
It would not be too informative to take these 'vices' one by one because they were repeated in a boring manner during the national character debate, but it would be more interesting to look at the philosophy of history which emerged from this starting-point. These vices in Szekfű's interpretations had been that of the nobility of the Hungarian nation, and later became consummated in the liberal capitalism of 19 th century.
This liberal capitalism from the Szekfű's point of view was the engine of an inorganic historical development in Hungary as well throughout in Europe. Lajos Prohászka's book, A vándor és a bújdosó The Wanderer and the Hider in its deeper structure was the continuation of the Három nemzedék Three Generations. Both works were imbibed with the critique of modernity denying the progress optimism of the 19 th century. We can say that these writings were the typical products of the philosophy of crisis of the inter-war period.
The starting point of Prohászka's book is rooted in German Geistesgeschichte. Every nation has its own spirituality which means a special mode of existence as well.
This spirituality predetermines the behaviour in concrete historical situations.
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The Hungarian national character is diametrically opposite to the German one. This is the root of other national vices, first of all of fruitless party debate and short-lived enthusiasm szalmaláng. What is the Hungarian? But these essays did not form a coherent book: they could not provide the basis for national characterology as a new discipline. In the writing of Mihály Babitswho was one of the greatest Hungarian poets of the 20 th century, entitled A magyar jellemről On Hungarian Character we can find a curious ambivalence.
In the first part of his essay, Babits explicated at length why it is almost impossible to create a valid national characterology yet, in the second anti aging bio cellulóz szemmaszk he laid down the maxims of his theory for Hungarian national character.
In his conception the Hungarian national character is not an eternally existing immutable substance but a changing constellation of different elements evolving during the process of history.
He rejected the theory of László Németh, who had constructed the oppositional notions of the 'true-born Hungarian' and the 'foreigner'. In an earlier essay, directly after the First World War, he had criticized the conservative features of Hungarian character, while inin the shadow of the nearing Second World War he evaluated this conservatism as the safeguard against devastating totalitarian ideologies.
This is undeniably the most interesting question in this field. There is a common conviction that these theories had been rooted in Geistesgeschichte, but this opinion is only legjobb cruelty free anti aging bőrápoló true.
The national characterologies of Lajos Prohászka and Tibor Joó are truly based in this intellectual movement but Geistesgeschichte is not a common denominator of all works in this field. It seems to be a much more relevant approach to focus upon the essentialism of this way of thinking.
The main concern of these theories is the searching for national essence. This essence can be eternal but can be changing, emerging in historical process. As Balázs Trencsényi franck michaud svájc anti aging out, Carl Schmitt's theory of political romanticism can be used as a framework of interpretation for national characterology  The basic feature of political romanticism is the secularized occasionalism anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció identify one phenomenon with the appearance of the other, individual is just the instance of appearance of anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció.
But the reverse is true: community is the case of the appearance of the individual. In traditional theological occasionalism, it is God who appears tente quechua suisse anti aging worldly phenomena, but in political romanticism the subject of appearance is Humanity or History - respectively we speak on revolutionary or conservative romanticism.
The romantic Ego as a clairvoyant prophet is able to discern the values by which the sinking national essence can be saved and redefined, and moreover can be formulated as a common value-system for the members of national community. In Szekfű's theory - which aims at the reconstruction anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció the modernized Greater Historical Hungary - this clairvoyant anti aging adaptogének növények is Count István Széchenyi of the 19 th century, in Dezső Szabó's conception - which speaks the narratives of ethnopopulist national characterology anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció aims at the creation of ethnically homogenized elites and a new conquest of Hungary - the writer-prophet plays this historic role.
In these concepts the national essence is an ahistorical entity and a subject of historical degeneration at the same time. The norm-giver clairvoyant prophet's or politician's task is to revitalize and actualize this potentially existing national essence.
As Gyula Szekfű's intellectual carrier proved there was possibility for passage between afore mentioned theories.
In the s Gyula Szekfű took over from the populist tradition what had been established by Dezső Szabó, namely the thesis concerning the nation-regenerating potential of peasantry while by introducing the notion of the neobaroque order cautiously criticized the political structures and political elites of the inter-war period Hungary.
Németh László accepted Dezső Szabó's theory of the relation of value-recognizing writer-prophet and value-accepting society, enlarging it with an eschatological dimension of degenerative narrative, anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció to the notion of lowered in class status, true-born, 'deep-Hungarian' national character.
In his theory, the new elites' - who are in the mainstream of European contemporaneous culture - main task is the elaboration of a cultural canon which gives an opportunity for creating new social-political structures based on regenerated Hungarian national character. This vision had been described in his utopian essay entitled Kapások Peasants working with hoe Later he connected his conception of elites, based on Ortega y Gasset's theory, with the question of assimilation.
This resulted in the theory of dissimilation, which appeared in his essay-pamphlet entitled Kisebbségben In Minority In this book the creative minority was replaced by the tragic eternal minority while the revolution of quality which had originally meant the autonomous action of this minority metamorphosed into some kind of transcendence revealing itself through the writer-prophet. Through political action the nation gets some kind of character, but this is not a super individual existing above real human beings.
Undoubtedly, the golden age of national curmin lift anti aging szérum had been the inter-war period of Europe. Afterthis anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció did not disappear. Daniel Bell, the well-known American sociologist in his detailed essay of discussed this problem.
This problem always appears when one has to face the reality of a foreign community. We can find the origins of notion in antiquity, but the modern conception of national character has its roots in the 19 th century.
This time, notions of race and nation were used as synonyms because the idea of race had not been burdened with horrible connotations which it gained in the biological racism of the 20 th century Nazism. After the First World War, the modern social anthropology substituted the idea of culture for race; culture was defined as a set of behavioural patterns regulating social norms in a given community.
It seemed to be a good term because it gave a chance for synthesis of biological, psychological and anthropological approaches.
But the experiences of the Second World War needed a holistic concept for interpreting different - American, English, Japanese and German etc.
So the notion of nation gained ground once more. During the war and after it were published many works, which - similarly to the Hungarian national characterologies of the inter-war period - tried to define different national characters by peculiar symbols. As an example, Bell mentions Ruth Benedicts' book entitled The Chrysanthemum and the Sword, in which the author described the Japanese nation as an aesthetically sophisticated but structurally rigid, strongly controlled community, with an inclination to brutality.
In Bell's opinion, moves such as mentioned above, have a common fault, namely they are unable to define the notions of nation and character in a satisfactory way. The main problem is here - argues Bell - that the nation as a social unit is a relatively young and mutable entity; this fact brings into question the existence of a durable character in this case.
In the last analyse, this problem belongs to the field of empirical sociology. Notwithstanding, national character is not equal to specific behavioural patterns of the investigated social groups.
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However, the main problem - says Bell - that the notion of national character has five different elements and the authors frequently do no not make the necessary distinctions among them. These are: 1. National imagoes "are the diverse folk, historical, and literary characters who embody modes of response to life situations National consciousness Bell, following Ralph Linton's approach, says that "a modal personality structure is one that appears with more considerable frequency than others, and thus there may be several modes in any distribution of variants.
Is it possible now to talk about national character in historic-social-intellectual constellations which fundamentally differ from ones, that existed in ? A book, also entitled Mi a magyar? In its introduction András Gerő declares that the question appearing in the title emerges for every generation, so it is a meaningful question, but our answers to it are radically different from ones were possible in What mainly concerns us in the essays of this book is the special mode of approach and the intellectual framework hiding beyond the answers that are given to the question 'what is the Hungarian?
I can only deal with the writings which are the most important ones from the selected point of view. Anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció at first reading we can find a definite will of deconstruction for the notion of national character. The authors seem to be in consensus about the irrelevance of an essentialist approach. But, the degree of deconstruction is different author by author. At one end of the spectrum we can find Péter Anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció, one of the most famous contemporaneous writers, who already in the title of his essay Mi a mi?
What is the what?
He declares that this problem is not important for him because what he is interested in is individual and not collectivity. Collectivity is unable to exist without individuals; individuals are prior to collectivity. We cannot even say - argues Esterházy - that the nation can be defined by a commonly shared culture.
It was true trubbach suisse anti aging yesterday, but it is not true today. But there is nothing terrible in this new situation: the concept of nation is not a divine gift.
It was the invention of the 19 th century, as well the multitude of symbolic spaces ranging from the badge of ranks for soldiers to the national anthem. Now we have entered a new epoch, in which the main problem for the Hungarian nation is modernization and not the search for an alleged national character. At another end of the spectrum, there is Bertalan Andrásfalvy, the ethnographer who is in a sense connected to the book of Of course it does not mean that he would be the direct follower of the inter-war narrative, but he does not intend to deconstruct the problem of national character.
According to his starting point the definition of Hungarian national character embraces the wholeness of the process for Hungarian természetes kezelés az öregedés ellen. He emphasizes the plurality of Hungarian historic-cultural traditions, so refuses the idea of cultural homogeneity. At the same time he writes about constant Hungarian national features, e.
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He in conclusion, refers to the Renan's famous definition: belonging to a nation means a plebiscite repeated day by day, it is a conscious decision on the side of a tradition. In Grendel's opinion there is a close connection between Hungarian historical traumas and national consciousness. He anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció the plurality of national traditions and rejected the holistic approach, which characterized the national characterologies of the inter-war period. The main problem in Hungary is a deep discrepancy between modern democratic political institutions anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció anti-modern national consciousness after This phenomenon can be led back to the unsolved historic traumas.
At the centre of Hungarian national consciousness has been the trauma of Peace Treaty of Trianon of As Bibó's follower, Grendel recommends a critical approach to Hungarian political traditions; a democratic nation cannot continue its antidemocratic traditions. He sharply rejects the third way theories, but strongly criticizes the East European political elites which in his opinion have not taken advantage of the historic opportunity arose in He agrees with Péter Esterházy that there is no such thing as a national essence, but he thinks - referring to Patocka, the Czech philosopher - that national role for a nation is a sensible notion.
The national role of Hungary is to contribute to the dissolution of historic traumas and to the search of common solutions in this part of Europe. The members of the Hungarian cultural-linguistic nation are living in different countries, so the situation is the same as it was in the inter-war era after the partition of Historic Greater Hungary, but the self-reflection of the nation on this fact is basically different than it was in the anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció period.
Today - argues Ormos - public opinion in a general way accepts the existence of double identity, but there is an uncertainty in judging the status of ethnic and cultural or religious minorities, first of all the Gypsy and Jewish minorities, living inside the country.
Public anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció on the one hand, in contrast to the situation of the inter-war era, has accepted the fact; there is no real possibility for the shifting of national boundaries, so the existing situation is permanent. On the other hand, the unsuccessful plebiscite on double citizenship in and its afterlife has proved that there are no solid and generally shared criteria for gaining consensus in national community in this question.
Moreover - argues Ormos - the self-reflection of the Hungarian minorities living in the foreign language political communities of neighbouring countries has been changing since the ss: their 'we-consciousness' presumably has changed in some degree because of long-standing situation.
There are some historically developed and fixed peculiarities of the Hungarian national community - e. The only efficient medical treatment anti aging svájci favázas konstrukció run concerning the uncertainties of Hungarian national consciousness is to give up the conception of the nation-state - concludes Ormos her train of thought. Entitled Magyar labirintus Hungarian Labyrinth Végel, similarly to the above-mentioned Lajos Grendel, gives a historical-sociological analysis of the history of the Hungarian minority in Vajdaság.
Végel - following István Bibó - describes a long standing deadlock, which has been rooted in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy of the second half of the 19 th century.
In Végel's opinion, it was the Hungarian gentry living in the periphery of the Historical Greater Hungary who played main role in establishing this historical deadlock, which was the local variant of the general Hungarian dead-lock of this time. The local Hungarian political elites were mainly recruited from this social stratum, which refuted and blocked modernization, constructed a rootless and stagelike hollow national consciousness.
After the Trianon Peace Treaty ofthese local elites had left their communities in the lurch and escaped to Hungary. After the Second World War, this event was repeated but to a lesser degree. Paradoxically, the Hungarian communities legjobb anti aging feszesítő alakformáló hidratáló Vajdaság only one time had had modernizing, well-functioning elites and it was during the decades of Yugoslav socialism but, because of the disintegration of Yugoslavia the process of modernization was interrupted in the era of Balkan-wars of the s.
Maybe we can risk a guess: the question 'what is the Hungarian? Today nobody believes any more in the possibility of scientifically based national characterology. But the question itself, as András Gerő rightly declared, remains meaningful. It was in this year that a new institutional network of Hungarian philosophy was built in place of its former but destroyed background at universities and in civil sphere.
Later it has appeared as a new official philosophical periodical of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Under the title Filozófiai Évkönyv Yearbook of Philosophy its edition started in This double requirement of radical break with Hungarian philosophical tradition and cultivating its "progressive traditions" is only one of the consequences of - far from the most significant one - the debates within contemporary "official" Marxism.
It reflects also the complicated and strained connection between Marxism and the history of Philosophy, and as well between Marxism and the particular disciplines. It would need much more space than I actually have here to explain these general problems in detail; so I will focus exclusively on the topics concerned with the related disciplines.
I will show the consequences of the opinion of Hungarian "official" Marxism as regards the history of philosophy, especially the historiography of the earliest authors of Hungarian philosophy.